Water & Wastewater
SmartMeasurement™'s products have been used in a variety of flow measurement applications in the Water and Wastewater industry. SmartMeasurement™'s ALMAGWP electromagnetic flow meters have been successfully used to measure wastewater sludge and raw water while the ALSONIC family of ultrasonic flow meters have been used for similar applications where customers are able to sacrifice the higher accuracy of electromagnetic flow meters to gain the non-intrusive nature and portability of the ALSONIC family of ultrasonic flow meters. The ALMAGIS insertion magnetic flowmeter combined with a level transmitter can be used for open channel sludge and effluent system applications. For open channel applications with relatively clean liquids, the ALSONIC-AVM open channel ultrasonic flow meters are the instrument of choice.
The ATMF series thermal mass flow meters are used in biogases, aeration, and combustion air systems as well as fuel gas monitoring in boilers systems. In methanol and additive applications, the SmartMeasurement™ ALCM Coriolis mass flow meter has been used with success. SmartMeasurement™ provides a one-stop shop for all flow metering requirements in the water and wastewater industries.
Magnetic flowmeters and ultrasonic flowmeters in wastewater treatment plants
In general, both magnetic flowmeters, ultrasonic flowmeters can be used where gas and solids content is low. If gas and solids content is high, magnetic flowmeters are the better choice because gas and solids can severely dampen the sound pulse used by transit-time meters. The SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC ultrasonic flowmeter Transit-time ultrasonic meters with its ability to measure up to 30% solids and bubbles are suitable for most of the flow measurement applications in this process. Exceptions are: the location downstream of the aeration process in the biological treatment, and also the RAS and WAS lines. In the former, the sludge typically contains a high content of gas; the latter contains a high solid content. The processes within sludge treatment are generally the domain of electromagnetic flow meters because of the typical high solids and gas content where a more accurate SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP magnetic flowmeters with accuracies up to 0.2% becomes the instrument of choice for sludge applications.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC ultrasonic flowmeter Transit-time ultrasonic meters with its ability to measure up to 30% solids and bubbles are suitable for most of the flow measurement applications in wastewater processes.
• Customers requiring higher accuracies will use the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP magnetic flowmeters with accuracies up to 0.2%.
Regeneration of water wells
There are many independent well regeneration and maintenance companies who perform camera inspections and maintain existing water wells and water treatment installations for water utility companies. The maintenance of wells involves exchange of pumps and pipes, the cleaning of filters and the regeneration of complete wells. Maintenance companies have many maintenance skids at their disposal for the treatment of wells.
At many locations there are meadows and forests; mains power is often not available. Water maintenance companies require accurate flow measurements for well maintenance activities and for building new wells. Well treatment often times involve checking the calibrated volume of water abstracted from a well to know for how much the water level is reduced. These companies must report to local governments on their findings. As a result the amount of water that can be abstracted is often limited. In addition, governments demand that in case of well maintenance, such as cleaning under high pressure and chemical regeneration, the volume of water that is pumped and discharged during the treatment should be measured accurately.
The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGBAT magnetic flowmeters is a standalone water meter with battery power provides a good solution for remote locations where no power is available. The ALMAGBAT has a very high turndown ratio of 1 to 400 an important factor due to the measured flow can vary from very low flows to very high flows. At locations, where the piping cannot be removed or where there is no space to install a flowmeter, the SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC-DSP ultrasonic flowmeter clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeter are used. The maintenance skids are used at many locations with different flow rates and also flows rates of a well under test can vary from high to low. Contrary to mechanical meters, the ALMAGBAT as well as the ALSONIC-DSP has no internal moving parts, so there is nothing to wear and nothing to block, as well as having no pressure drop.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGBAT magnetic flowmeters is a standalone water meter with battery power provides a good solution for remote locations where no power is available.
• Locations, where the piping cannot be removed or where there is no space to install a flowmeter, the SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC ultrasonic flowmeter clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeter are used.
Water abstraction control
In order to manage water supplies better water abstraction controls are extremely important. Normally these abstraction controls are applied to where water is being drawn for purposes such as drinking water, industrial usage or irrigation. Abstraction controls are important because restricting the amount of water that can be drawn from any one source helps prevent environmental damage, such as depletion or, harm to aquatic life as well as overall management and conservation of water sources. Therefore it is highly necessary to measure the amount of water abstracted and to ensure that consumption remains within the prescribed limit.
Selecting the appropriate flowmeter for abstraction controls depends on a number of factors, including the desired accuracy and repeatability and also the characteristics of the installation. For example, where water is being abstracted from a river or stream, pebbles and sediment may be present which could quickly damage and even destroy a mechanical meter. Where sea water is being abstracted, the salinity of the water can also quickly wear out a stainless steel flowmeter, requiring consideration of the materials of construction. This is where the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters becomes flow meter of choice. Compared to other flowmeters the ALMAGWP magnetic flowmeters with various linings gives protection against high sediment flows, a variety of materials, including ceramic linings for particularly abrasive flows. With no moving parts, they do not suffer from problems with wear and tear, minimizing maintenance, and require no upstream strainers to filter sediment. If a portable solution is required, the portable SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC-DSPPL ultrasonic flowmeter Transit-time ultrasonic meters with its ability to measure up to 30% solids and bubbles becomes the instrument of choice.
• Water is being abstracted from a river or stream, pebbles and sediment may be present which could quickly damage and even destroy a mechanical meter, therefore the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP magnetic flowmeters with various linings gives protection against high sediment flows, a variety of materials, including ceramic linings for particularly abrasive flows.
• When a portable solution is required, the portable SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC-DSPPL ultrasonic flowmeter Transit-time ultrasonic meters with its ability to measure up to 30% solids and bubbles becomes the instrument of choice.
Water Distribution Networks
Transportation of potable water involves the uses pipes that can run through densely populated areas, cross rivers and other obstructions which will affect the rate of flow from its source to its final destination for usage. Accuracy is an important criterion in selecting a flowmeter, because it concerns the custody transfer of potable water between two independent sources. The flow measurement is subject to fiscal regulations and therefore requires a certification of accuracy. Often times at the location of installation there is no mains power available, so a battery powered, stand alone, water meter is preferred. The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters high accuracies of up to 0.2%, wide turndown ratio is a popular flow meter. When a self-powered flow meter is needed, the battery powered, stand alone, ALMAGBAT offers water utilities opportunities for improving revenues because of high accuracies at high and low flow rates and because the water meter maintains its initial accuracy over a long period of time. The sensors have IP 68 mounting, allowing the meter to be temporary or continuously submerged in water. Magnetic flowmeters water meters maintain their accuracy over time and due to their robust construction the time spent on routine maintenance and service activities can be reduced to a minimum.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters high accuracies of up to 0.2%, wide turndown ratio is a popular flow meter.
• When a self-powered flow meter is needed, the battery powered, stand alone, the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGBAT offers the best alternative to a standard AC or DC powered magnetic meter.
Since a majority of potable water processes involve liquids that are conductive, magnetic flowmeters are suitable for almost all flow measurement applications, whereas mechanical flow meter are often was used are usually oversized for the measurement. In high flow applications, mechanical meters can measure with a reasonable accuracy, but low flows at nights can be very inaccurate. The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters is an ideal choice for older mechanical water meters that reaches its lifespan and are up for a replacement. A major benefit for customer is that the ALMAGBAT, contrary to mechanical meters, is obstruction-free and therefore it causes no pressure loss. High and low flows are measured with a high accuracy and with a high repeatability. Because there are no internal parts that can wear, the ALMAGBAT maintains its accuracy over time offering reliability and reduced maintenance. The ALMAGBAT display shows rate, total for billing purposes plus a status indication of the battery, the flow/counter direction and empty pipe detection.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters high accuracies of up to 0.2%, wide turndown ratio is a popular flow meter in replacing mechanical meters because of its obstruction-free and no pressure loss features.
• When a self-powered flow meter is needed, the battery powered, stand alone, the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGBAT offers the best alternative to a standard AC or DC powered magnetic meter.
Pressure filter system in water treatment plants
The quality of untreated water can vary depending on is extraction point. Over one third of the entire amount of ground filtrate in the waterworks is conducted through pressure filter tanks filled with quartz chips for the biological filtering out of manganese. This section of a treatment plant is the most important area in water treatment plants. Water analysis is made to which suspended particles and colloids are filtered out of the untreated water and by how much. The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters are used for this most important area of water treatment. The ALMAGWP stands out due to its high measuring performance while also boasting extremely rugged construction. The ALMAGWP's steel flow body is fully welded and leak-tested at the factory. Moreover, The ALMAGWP is thoroughly tested over a time period of 20 hours at temperatures between –20°C and +60°C.
• In pressure filter system, the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters are used to its ability to measure flows containing suspended particles due to its high accuracy and rugged construction.
Booster pump works with collector well in water treatment facilities
Many waterworks plants have rotary pumps with electric drives take on the task of supplying potable water to the public supply network. The SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC-DSP ultrasonic flowmeter clamp-on flowmeter with its ability to measure up to 30% suspended solids is ideal for measurement different water qualities and flocculating agents. The ALSONIC-DSP with its four channel configuration covers up to four applications with a single electronics unit becomes more economical than a single measuring fixed magnetic flowmeters. The use of only one device for each flow measuring station not only creates planning and investment security, but also keeps the warehouse management streamlined. In addition, there is the unique diagnostics capability reduces periodic maintenance intervals and unexpected downtimes are therefore also a thing of the past.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC-DSP with its four channel configuration covers up to four applications with a single electronics becomes a more economical flow meter than a single measuring fixed magnetic flowmeters in the multi pipe network water collection treatment facilities.
Corrosion protection and disinfection
In waterworks, the untreated water from all of the vertical wells is consolidated in deep containers. Natron a kind of soda ash base is used in chemical treatment by liquors for increasing the PH value and monophosphate are dosed for protecting the pipeline network and home installed pipes from corrosion. Optionally, a chlorine bleaching system can be connected for dosing, to prevent microbiological effects. Dosing require the use of a highly accurate flowmeter, but also chemically durable such as the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters is various non-corrosive liners and flow bodies.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters with various non-corrosive liners and flow bodies are the flow meter of choice in a highly accurate chemically durable in dosing operations.
Clean water from water treatment facilities
Measuring of the potable water intended for the population must precisely comply with government regulations. Therefore, the selection of the flowmeter and its materials inside the measuring pipe is extremely important. The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters have sensors that have liners at are in compliance to governmental authorities. The ALMAGWP meets these criteria and are wet calibrated with a NIST certified volumetric calibration station and are delivered with an official calibration certification.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters popular due to having sensors and liners that are in compliance to governmental authorities for clean drinking water coming out of water treatment facility.
Open channel measurement in partially filled wastewater and sludge purification plants
Water purification plant has a two-stage biological purification system which eliminates nitrogen and phosphate downstream wastewater filter. These plants also have sludge digestion and sludge treatment systems on site with drainage and drying. Wastewater flows into various collectors and then flows in the plant's inlet. Flow can either be moved by natural pipe gradients or pushed up to the plant. The pipes are partially filled of between 200-1600mm diameters. Measurement of this flow must be done with both a flow and level instrument as written in“measurement principals”our open channel section.
The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGIS insertion magnetic flowmeter combined with a level transmitter are ideal for open channel liquid sludge measurement. The ALMAGIS is inserted close to the bottom of the pipe where there will always be flow while any level transmitter can be used on top of the pipe to monitor the height of the flow. Average flow rate in the partially filled cross-section is determined electromagnetically via two measuring electrodes, which are always under the surface of the water and therefore cannot be obscured, even at levels of only 10% of the inside diameter. The level can be determined using any level measurement principal such as capacitive, radar, ultrasonic etc. The signal of each instrument is sent to the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGIS system control panel where instantaneous and total flow is calculated. Measurement takes place independently of deposits and dirt on the pipe walls and is unaffected by wave formation. Another benefit is the abrasion-resistant polyurethane lining, which remains resistant even to sand and stones. In addition to flow, total volume and level, the ALMAGIS system control panel indicates various reliably reports when limit values are undershot or exceeded.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGIS insertion magnetic flowmeter combined with a level transmitter are ideal for open channel liquid sludge measurement.
Open channel measurement in partially filled water distribution channels
Large water pipes or partially filled water channels are used to distribute water throughout the utility networks. These large pipes are partially full so that when storms or water surges occur, the pipes don’t break. Whereas partially filled water channels allow enough unused volume so not to cause spillage or flooding in its surrounding. Partially filled pipes or open channels must have both velocity and level measurement as the water level or flow area increases or decreases during the year. The SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC-AVM open channel ultrasonic flowmeter combined with a level transmitter are ideal for area velocity measurement. Systems of up to 15 meters or more have been successfully measured with the SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC-AVM ultrasonic transducers installed on the opposite side of the channel. An independent level transducer is connected to the ALSONIC-AVM flow computer provides an accurate flow rate and total flow of any partially filled channel or pipes.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC-AVM ultrasonic flowmeter combined with a level transmitter are ideal for open channel water measurement.
The wastewater flows through a sand filtering system with an automatic sand screener. The aired sand filter ensures that sand and other mineral solids settle on the bottom of the sand filter basin while fats in the wastewater floats to the surface. The wastewater then flows into the pre-purification consisting of four rectangular settling basins in which all un-dissolved pollutants that are heavier than water settles. Fats, oils and light plastics that were not completely removed in the aired sand filter float to the surface of the water and are skimmed off. Several SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP families of magnetic flowmeters are installed in the untreated water inlet of the pre-purification system. The ALMAGWP is installed with either polypropylene or ebonite liners to guarantee a high degree of resistance to solids and abrasive media.
• Untreated wastewater with its high degree of solids and abrasive material becomes an excellent application for the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP families of magnetic flowmeters where it is installed in the untreated water inlet of the pre-purification system.
Measurement of iron chloride in light load aeration
In light load aeration activated sludge is separated from the wastewater. In the inlet of the secondary sedimentation, iron chloride or an equivalent substance is added for elimination the phosphates just as with the sand filter. In measuring iron chloride the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP families of magnetic flowmeters with PTFE special lining are used. The dosing of flocculating agents must always be adjusted to the amount of wastewater and the degree of turbidity. With a measuring accuracy of 0.2 % of the measuring value and a reproducibility of 0.06%, ALMAG sets the standard for other magnetic flowmeters. In addition to the PTFE special lining, high-value ceramics are also available with the ALMAGWC families of magnetic flowmeters for more abrasive fluids.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP families of magnetic flowmeters with PTFE special lining are used due to the corrosive nature of phosphates and iron chloride.
• Special lining, high-value ceramics liners and/or electrodes are also available with the ALMAGWC families of magnetic flowmeters for more abrasive fluids.
Flow measurement of sludge
The sludge treatment allows biological stabilization of the sewage sludge. Effective sludge digestions are needed to y keep the resultant smells to an absolute minimum. The main sludge from the biological purification stages undergoes thickening in the so-called main sludge thickener and is temporarily stored in sludge storage containers before digestion. In both pre-thickener and in the main sludge thickener, the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAG families of magnetic flowmeters are used. Thanks to the unique diagnostics capabilities of the ALMAG installation and operating status of the device can be monitored.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP families of magnetic flowmeters are in the flow meter of choice in sludge measurement.
Methanol measurement with Coriolis flowmeters
In the second stage of aeration (often time called light-duty aeration) reduced nitrogen compounds remain in the wastewater in the form of ammonia. Ammonia which is highly poisonous is converted into nitrate (nitrification) and then further converted into nitrogen. Methanol is injected during the purification process to accelerate the purification process. The mass flow of liquid methanol is critical in calculating the efficiency of ammonia purification to plant managers. The SmartMeasurement™ ALCM Coriolis mass flow meters in homogeneous mixtures is practically made for this application where it reliably determines mass flow rate, density, volume, temperature, mass or volume concentration and percentage of solids accurately.
• The mass flow of liquid methanol is critical in calculating the efficiency of ammonia purification to plant and therefore the SmartMeasurement™ ALCM Coriolis mass flow meters in homogeneous mixtures is practically made for this application, where both mass flow, density, volume measurement is required.
In the first biological purification stage, a heavy-duty aeration system is used with air to supply oxygen to biological tanks in order to speed up the decomposition of sludge waste. Compressed air is necessary to promote optimal bacteria growth in aeration basins and the mass of dissolved oxygen is measured. One of the largest expenses incurred in operating these systems is the cost of the compressed air. Closely controlling the aeration process can reduce energy consumption by as much as 25%, and accurate measurement is critical to success in achieving this goal. Surface aerated basins uses aerobic micro-organisms to remove 80 to 90% of organic matter in waste water. Oxygen concentration in the water basins is a critical factor to promote the optimum micro-organism growth rate needed to treat the water in the shortest amount of time. As a result, large compressors are used to force air through hundreds of air diffusion filters at the bottom of the aeration basins, providing a constant 24/7 supply of oxygen to the micro-organisms in the water. This is where the SmartMeasurement™ ATMF series of thermal mass flow meters become instrument of choice. Volumetric flowmeters measure volume of air (Oxygen) which varies with changes of ambient temperature and pressure resulting in inaccurate flow measurement. The ATMF series thermal mass flow meters are not affected by changes in process conditions thereby providing a more accurate measurement for plant operators.
Carbon compounds are removed from the wastewater in various aeration basins operating in parallel. The heavy-duty aeration system often times replaces old style trickling filters in the biological purification stage. Several SmartMeasurement™ ALMAG families of magnetic flowmeters are installed to measure the return sludge in the heavy-duty aeration systems. The reliable detection and measurement of thick sludge using magnetic flowmeters are important because large proportions of solid bodies and gas bubbles frequently caused a noisy measuring signal.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ATMF series of thermal mass flow meters become instrument of choice for aeration process because volumetric flowmeters measure volume of air (Oxygen) which varies with changes of ambient temperature and pressure resulting in inaccurate flow measurement.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP families of magnetic flowmeters used to measure the return sludge in the heavy-duty aeration systems.
In either Aerobic digestions which uses bacterial in the presence of oxygen or anaerobic digestion which uses bacteria in absence of oxygen bacteria breaks down some of the sludge in biogas. This biogas usually contains over 50% methane and the remainder carbon dioxide. Both carbon dioxide and methane are expensive and can be sold or in the methane case used as fuel. Therefore accurate measurement of biogas is required. One problem with the biogas process involves very low flows which volumetric flowmeters cannot monitor. Moreover because biogas can be sold, accurate mass flow measurement is needed. This is where the SmartMeasurement™ ATMF series of thermal mass flow meters become instrument of choice. Not only it can measure extremely low velocities of down to 0.02mps but it measures mass flow directly without the need to monitor pressure and temperature to infer mass flow.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ATMF biogas mass flow meters are ideal in biogas applications due to its ability to measure extremely low velocities of down to 0.02mps as and unlike volumetric gas flow meters, it measures mass flow directly without the need to monitor pressure and temperature to infer mass flow as all volumetric gas flow meter.
Biogas for Cogeneration plants in wastewater facilities
Many Wastewater Treatment Facilities generate the majority of its own electric power by using internal combustion engines that burns a mixture of methane gas produced by the sewage digestion process. Producing abundant, healthy amounts of biogas each day in a digester can be the cornerstone of renewable energy program. Biogas generated during the digester system are cleaned, compressed and mixed with natural gas, this biogas becomes a valuable fuel for the plant’s co-generators, which produce enough electricity to meet over 50% of a plant’s electrical needs. Since digester gas applications operate at pressures just slightly above atmospheric and produces very low flow rates, it is essential that instrumentation has the ability to measure and remain accurate even at these low pressures. Volumetric gas flowmeters, which are traditionally differential pressure (DP) flowmeters, requires a pressure drop to make the measurement. Low flows create a very small differential pressure across a DP device such as an orifice plate or annubar and flows cannot be monitored. This is where the SmartMeasurement™ ATMF series of thermal mass flow meters become instrument of choice. The ATMF insertion probes with its ½’ diameter sensors can measure mass flow, temperature, velocity etc. with virtually no pressure drop. Very low flow digester gas requires high accuracies of 1% and a turndown (100:1), while accurately measuring its mass without the need of pressure, temperature transmitters with a flow computer, the SmartMeasurement™ ATMF mass flow meters are a better choice than volumetric gas measurement.
• The ATMF insertion probes with its ½’ diameter sensors can measure mass flow, temperature, velocity etc. with virtually no pressure drop. Velocities of 0.02 with high turndowns of better than 100:1 are successfully measured.
Biogas from Landfills for Cogeneration
Solid wastes collected from various sources including households, commercial and industrial activities enter a landfill, where methanogen bacteria decompose the organic material. A by-product of the bacterial decomposition is biogas, composed of 50% methane and 50% carbon dioxide. Millions of tons of municipal solid wastes are disposed of in sanitary landfills where globally, landfills are the third largest anthropogenic emission source, accounting for about 13% of methane emissions or over 818 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMTCO2e). Over 1,200 landfills worldwide collect landfill gas which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and accrues emissions credits to meet the pollution regulatory reporting standards.
To collect this landfill gas, a series of pipes are embedded within the landfill and a “flare” is used to burn off the collected gas. A better use of this gas is for cogeneration where it is compressed and mixed with natural gas, which in turn can be used to run a power generator. The biogas is a clean energy source in the cogeneration process. Landfill gas is very humid, at low pressure (20-40 mBarg) and about 40-60°C (100°F). Therefore measuring the biogas as it leaves the landfill is difficult for volumetric gas flowmeters. Low pressure makes differential pressure (DP) devices like orifice plates unsuitable since they require a fairly large differential pressure to operate. Also, the landfill gas is often very dirty with a high moisture and particulate content. This can clog up devices like annubars and orifice plates or gum up turbine meters and similar instruments that have moving parts. The SmartMeasurement™ ATMF series of thermal mass flow meters, its abilities to measure low flow, offers virtually no pressure drop, constructed with no moving parts become instrument of choice.
• The SmartMeasurement™ ATMF air mass flow meters, with its no moving parts and wide turn-downs are used for measuring biogas or landfill gas for cogeneration plants where as volumetric gas flow meters can often clog up or gum up due to high moisture and particulate contents in a biogases.
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