SmartMeasurement™’s products have many flow measurement applications in the Oil and Gas industry. Our ALBRPD Positive Displacement Flow meters have been used to measure crude and fuel oils. Our Coriolis Flow Meters have been used not only to measure well-head crude but also to monitor the amount of water in crude (water-cut measurement) and mass flow of process fuels and liquid additives. The ALMAGHP high pressure electromagnetic flow meter is used for liquid injection into low producing wells. Our ALSONIC-DSP clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeters are used for non-intrusive and/or spot checking of fluids throughout production systems. SmartMeasurement™ provides a one-stop shop for all flow metering requirements in the lucrative Oil and Gas sectors.
Crude Oil and Gas Production
Oil and Gas customers have several technology choices to measure flow, often times a mass flow meter such as SmartMeasurement™ ALCM family of Coriolis flow meters which can measure both density and mass flow is an ideal choice. Oil in water application which not only measures the percentage of water in oil, but total oil flow and water flows can be monitored with SmartMeasurement™ ALCM family of Coriolis flow meters.
The ALCM Coriolis flow meters require almost zero maintenance as there are no moving parts that can cause wear and tear. Even high percentages of entrained gas does do not affect the meter life span. In fact the meter operates even at gas levels of 40 … 50%. After proper installation the meter accuracy can be verified as below 5% making it significantly more accurate than conventional turbine meters. Additional features such as built in density or concentration measurement allows for further well analysis or net-oil or water-cut calculations.
SmartMeasurement™ ALCM family of Coriolis flow meters reduces measurement maintenance by up to 90%. The ALCM saves well investments as it gets additional insight into the well by providing more variables and gives superior accuracy. Is still operating at 40-50% of gas entrainment, when most other flowmeters fail. The water outlet of the separator can be measured with SmartMeasurement™ ALMAG family of electromagnetic meters offering low maintenance with conductive liquids.
Crude Oil wellhead
Large size Coriolis flow meters SmartMeasurement™ ALBRPD Positive Displacement flow meter is an idea flow meter to measure crude oil from wellheads. SmartMeasurement™ technologies continue to develop measurement solutions that reliably perform in the harshest onshore landscapes. The potentially harmful effects of entrained gases, sediment, water and chemicals are all factors that must be effectively mitigated through proper operations and processes. Therefore SmartMeasurement™ ALPDFT filter and the ALPDGE gas eliminators are used to condition the crude in order to be accurately measured by the ALBRPD Positive Displacement flow meter.
Drilling mud is often stored in tanks/silos. SmartMeasurement™ ALCM family of Coriolis flow meters is used in the online mixing and blending of expensive mud (WBM and OBM) as well as in custody transfer measurement with accuracies of 0.1% at the point of transfer to supply ships and mud tanks on site. The online measurement of density and viscosity keeps the mud parameters constant.
To ensure excellent cement quality for the batch, SmartMeasurement™ ALCM family of Coriolis flow meters monitors the flow rate online as well as the pumped cement density. Every drop of a chemical additive is quantified with the highly accurate ALCM family of Coriolis flow meters which are available for sizes of 10-200mm (1/2-8”).
• The ALCM Coriolis flow meters can measure both mass flow and density of cement to insurance accurate quality in cementation process.
• ALCM Coriolis flow meters can measure expensive liquid additives which requires very accurate measurement is also the flow meter of choice with its accuracy of 0.1%.
Online blending of frack jell is monitored with implemented with SmartMeasurement™ ALCM family of Coriolis flow meters for mass flow, density and online viscosity measurement. Moreover, fracking requires very high pressure fluids to be injected in the wells and therefore SmartMeasurement™ of family Differential Pressure transmitters the ALDPT, can measure process operation of up to 15,000 psi (1,000 bar). The ALDPT-MV smart Differential Pressure transmitters has an integrated thermocouple and store all adjustments and settings in an integrated memory chip. All data from all the fracking units involved in the process are visualized and recorded to set points, calculations and act as an independent PLC and communication unit.
Water and steam injection in wellheads
Water or steam injection in wellheads are used to bring up residual crude when wellheads are nearing their operation limits. SmartMeasurement™ ALVT family of Vortex steam flowmeters with integrated mass flow computer and temperature measurement allows for direct cost control of the individual injection process to the various wells. All injection parameters like pressure, temperature, flow rate and energy consumed can be transmitted to the control room via its MODBUS communication. It provides bidirectional communication, allowing you to call the well via mobile phone and check, for example the flow rate at any time. Optional alarms setting can be activated if the wells are producing above or below a set point.
If the process requires high pressure water injection, then SmartMeasurement™ALMAGHP high pressure magnetic flowmeters can be used in a similar fashion steam injection. Liquid solutions of up to 420 bars (6000 PSI) are injected into well heads so bring up residual crude oil from the wellheads. However magnetic flow meters only measure flow and pressure monitoring must be done separately with SmartMeasurement™ ALDPT Differential pressure transmitters.
Satellite and pump station
One of the costliest areas of separation and pipeline pumping are the expensive demulsify and Drag Reduction Additives (DRA) injected to support demulsification and to reduce pipeline drag. Optimal use of these chemicals in parts per million (ppm) quantities ensures the lowest operating expenses and best process performance with good separation and higher pipeline flow rates. SmartMeasurement™ ALCMDT family of very small sized Coriolis flow meters can measure mass flow rates at a very low 12Kg/hr. thereby accounting for every drop of the chemical injection.
• SmartMeasurement™ ALCMDT family of very small sized of ⅛” (3mm) Coriolis flow meters can measure mass flow rates at a very low 12 Kg/hr. ensuring that every drop of expensive chemicals during the demulsification process in satellite pumping stations.
Fuel storage tanks
Fuel storage facilities are usually third party enterprises who act as a supplier of light hydrocarbons and also as a storage facility for others. The flow meter of choice must be a technology that has accuracies that can qualify for custody transfer. There is also a considerable amount of bias by facility engineers in choosing the appropriate flow technology due to their experience in a given technology. SmartMeasurement™ manufacturing two technologies that can comply with custody transfer requirements. These are the ALCM Coriolis flowmeters and ALBRPD positive displacement meters which have accuracies of either 0.2 or 0.1% of rate.
One major customer decided to utilizes SmartMeasurement™ ALBRPD positive displacement meters extensively for custody transfer as well as for “balancing” their storage facilities. Normally Positive displacement meters are much cheaper than Coriolis flowmeters and customer would forgo the versatility of the Coriolis meter for the lower costs of the Positive Displacement flowmeters. Balancing a particular storage facility accounts for product removed and product that has been added in a storage tank. This type of application requires a bi-directional ALBRPD positive displacement flowmeter that is extremely repeatable over a period of time, is accurate, and one that can tolerate the service conditions. Many of the applications in a storage tank facility are more challenging in that the product is very dry without the usual lubricating properties associated with hydrocarbon products.
One flow application that presented particular problems in terms of measurement was for very dry, ultra-pure isobutene coming straight out of the dryer. Facilities that use turbine flowmeters which also can be used for custody transfer complain that turbine blades due to wear and tear are replaced many times within a four month period. The ALBRPD positive displacement flowmeter is a bi-directional flowmeter with a robust construction of both the rotor and blade can last much longer than a turbine meter. If cost is not a major constraint, SmartMeasurement™ ALCM Coriolis flowmeters are an instrument of choice because it doesn’t have any rotors or bearings. Since storage tanks can accumulate air/gas and perhaps particulates, not conditioning the flow before using a flowmeter can cause the flowmeter to malfunction. To solve this problem SmartMeasurement™ can offer the ALPDFT filter to filter any particulates as well as the ALPDGE air/gas eliminators.
• Fuel storage tanks uses either SmartMeasurement™ ALCM Coriolis flowmeters or ALBRPD positive displacement meters which have accuracies of either 0.2 or 0.1% of rate. Their choice depends on cost and/or technology bias of the operating engineers.
• Storage tanks will always accumulate gas and particles. Before measuring this fluid customers can use the ALPDFT filter/strainers and the ALPDGE air/gas eliminators to eliminated gas or particles before measurement.
Leak Detection in Pipeline
SmartMeasurement™ supplies many non-intrusive flowmeters to the petroleum pipeline industry for leak detection and spot checking flows. Custody transfer applications are addressed with SmartMeasurement™ ALCM Coriolis flowmeters or the ALBRPD positive displacement flowmeter, however leak detection flow applications, for checking the integrity of the pipeline, can be addressed with the an ALSONICDSP clamped-on ultrasonic flowmeters. While the ALSONICDSP ultrasonic meters doesn’t have the custody transfer high accuracies, accuracies of 0.5-1% is for leak detection a single pass method will suffice.
Ultrasonic flowmeters provide multiple advantages when compared both to in-line positive displacement or Coriolis flowmeters. These advantages include low cost both in terms of initial purchase but installation which requires no process shut-down or cutting the pipe. Other advantages are no pressure drop, can easily be replaced minimal potential points of leakage, and avoidance of high pumping costs. Additionally, ALSONICDSP ultrasonic meters can measure velocities as low as 0.02mps to as high as 12mps. This allows pipeline companies to move a maximum amount of product in the shortest time possible.
Leak detection and pipeline integrity is not only essential to the bottom line for the pipeline company, it is also an environmental issue. Many of the petroleum products being measured include the additive MTBE. Proper selection of the flowmeter seal is essential for any application; however, is sometimes more challenging with various additives factored into the equation. The ALSONICDSP because of its non-intrusive ultrasonic measurement technique and no moving parts which could corrode, wear out or be blocked is an ideal flow meter for leak detection. Additionally, both the ALSONICDSP transmitter enclosure and clamp-on sensors are manufactured with non-corrosive transducers and electronics allows it to be operate within extreme atmospheric conditions as found on offshore platforms or desserts. The transducers operate in pipe diameters from 10mm up to over 3,000mm (0.4” > 118”) and withstand pipe temperatures of up to 120°C and more. They are capable of measuring through pipe walls of any thickness including very thick-walled steel conduits (SCH XXS).
• ALSONICDSP ultrasonic meters can measure velocities as low as 0.02mps to as high as 12mps is an excellent choice for leak detection applications.
• The ALSONICDSP transmitter enclosure and clamp-on sensors are manufactured with non-corrosive transducers and electronics which allows it to be operate within extreme atmospheric conditions as found on offshore platforms or desserts.
General ultrasonic flowmeter measurement
SmartMeasurement™ ALSONICDSP ultrasonic flowmeters is also used to monitor the flow of liquids related to the oil and gas exploration and processing such as methylamine, triethylene glycol, methanol, water and produced water. The latter is particularly important to guarantee the compliance of offshore drilling facilities with the OPPC (Oil Pollution Prevention and Control) regulations.
Flare gas mass flow measurement
In a variety of oil production and refining environments, SmartMeasurement™ ATMF mass flow meters monitor total gas flow to flare stacks as well as through feed lines to the main flare header. As an integral part of energy conservation and emission control systems, it meets strict accuracy and wide turndown requirements. SmartMeasurement™ ATMF is highly reliable because of its durable construction and no moving parts design. Other uses are blower and louver adjustment for smokeless flares. A packing gland option permits hot-tap installation and retraction of the flow element without system shut down. The ATMF also features high flow range turndown ratios up to 1000:1 and micro-processor based user friendly electronics.
Offshore Lease Operators are now required to account for flare and vent gas volumes from deep water offshore facilities processing more than 2000 bpd. Federal Regulation – Title 30 Part 250, Subpart K defines these requirements and the time line for implementation. Accuracy is required to be 5%. While ultrasonic flare stack measurement offer better accuracies, its cost of several times more than SmartMeasurement™ ATMF mass prohibits it as an economical solution for flare measurement. Unlike conventional flow measurement requirements, flare/vent gas measurements present unique challenges in terms of range-ability and response to changing flow extremes.
During normal platform operations, flows are usually low. Depending on header size, discharge velocities are usually under 1 f/s (60 SFPM). However often times these flow rates can flare up to over 300 f/s (18,000 SFPM). The wide turn-down of up to 1000:1 allows the ATMF mass flowmeter to measure both extreme high and low flows. SmartMeasurement™ ATMF Series NIST Traceable Digital Thermal Mass Flow Meter is unique in making flare/vent gas measurements. A single meter can handle the extremely wide flow ranges both in normal operations and upset conditions, while operating within the prescribed accuracy requirements.
Considering these meters are typically required to be retrofitted into existing piping galleries, installation costs can be a significant factor in choosing flow meter technologies. With SmartMeasurement™ ATMF mass flowmeters there is no requirement to break the existing piping or to even take the lines out of service. Using an insertion measuring probe installed through a small isolation valve assembly makes this possible. SmartMeasurement™ ATMF mass flowmeters have a high resistance to gas contaminants and virtually no annual maintenance, making them reliable and very easy to own and operate. In addition, the Flow Meter has negligible pressure drop which is an important feature in lower gas flows.
• SmartMeasurement™ ATMF mass flow meters measure mass flow of flares from very high flow to a low flow with a turn-down of 100:1 or better.
• SmartMeasurement™ ATMF thermal mass flow meter are the only mass flowmeter in the market that can show if the flow meter is within original calibration specification.
Natural Gas Flow Measurement
Some natural gas wellheads can have up to 3000 wells that require regular flow rate and flow total verification. SmartMeasurement™ ATMF mass flowmeters are used in mobile trucks one for low to medium flow and one for medium to high flow as portable system to measure flow from wellhead to wellhead. The operator can independently move from location to location and the data can be transferred via MODBUS to the control room. Connected at the well head atmospheric discharge, SmartMeasurement™ ATMF mass flowmeters automatically preforms temperature and pressure compensation and is accurate to ± 1%. Unlike volumetric flow meters, the ATMF mass flowmeters doesn’t need pressure and temperature measurement to perform the needed mass flow measurement. Repeatability is ± 0.25% over the repeatable flow range.
Vapor measurement in tanker loading/unloading
SmartMeasurement™ ATMF Series mass flow meters provide the solutions for several difficult tanker loading/unloading applications. The ATMF mass flow meters are used to measure the flow of hydrocarbon vapors that are vented from the storage tanks, both on the tanker and at the port tank farm, to ensure compliance with environmental laws governing waste vapors. The ATMF is also used to measure nitrogen gas flow for blanketing systems.
Natural gas supply lines
Monitoring natural gas flow to various areas of production is critical in keeping costs under control. The transportation of natural gas over great distances is a complex task, requiring specialized equipment and facilities to deliver the gas safely, efficiently and in a ready to-use form. Considerations include maintaining sufficient pipeline pressure, maintaining pipeline integrity and keeping moisture levels low.
Often time’s customers use vortex meters and flow computers and calculating of mass flow was via pressure and temperature compensation fed to the flow computers. A better solution is to use one instrument such as SmartMeasurement™ ATMF series thermal mass flow meters. There is no need for external pressure and temperature sensors as well as a flow computer to measure mass flow. The ATMF Series features wide flow range turndown ratios up to 1000:1 and integral or remote electronic configurations with HART, or MODBUS in accordance with FM and ATEX approval standards. NIST traceable calibration certificates are supplied with every flow meter as a standard product feature.