SmartMeasurement™’s products have been used in a variety of flow measurement applications in the Water and Wastewater industry. SmartMeasurement™’s ALMAGWP electromagnetic flow meters have been successfully used to measure wastewater sludge and raw water while the ALSONIC family of ultrasonic flow meters have been used for similar applications where customers are able to sacrifice the higher accuracy of electromagnetic flow meters to gain the non-intrusive nature and portability of the ALSONIC family of ultrasonic flow meters. The ALMAGIS insertion magnetic flowmeter combined with a level transmitter can be used for open channel sludge and effluent system applications. For open channel applications with relatively clean liquids, the ALSONIC-AVM open channel ultrasonic flow meters are the instrument of choice.
The ATMF series thermal mass flow meters are used in biogases, aeration, and combustion air systems as well as fuel gas monitoring in boilers systems. In methanol and additive applications, the SmartMeasurement™ ALCM Coriolis mass flow meter has been used with success. SmartMeasurement™ provides a one-stop shop for all flow metering requirements in the water and wastewater industries.
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Magnetic flowmeters and ultrasonic flowmeters in wastewater treatment plants
In general, both magnetic flowmeters, ultrasonic flowmeters can be used where gas and solids content is low. If gas and solids content is high, magnetic flowmeters are the better choice because gas and solids can severely dampen the sound pulse used by transit-time meters. The SmartMeasurement™ ultrasonic flowmeter Transit-time ultrasonic meters with its ability to measure up to 30% solids and bubbles are suitable for most of the flow measurement applications in this process. Exceptions are: the location downstream of the aeration process in the biological treatment, and also the RAS and WAS lines. In the former, the sludge typically contains a high content of gas; the latter contains a high solid content. The processes within sludge treatment are generally the domain of electromagnetic flow meters because of the typical high solids and gas content where a more accurate SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP magnetic flowmeters with accuracies up to 0.2% becomes the instrument of choice for sludge applications.
The SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC ultrasonic flowmeter Transit-time ultrasonic meters with their ability to measure up to 30% solids and bubbles are suitable for most flow measurement applications in wastewater processes.
- Customers requiring higher accuracies will use the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP magnetic flowmeters with up to 0.2% accuracy.
Regeneration of water wells
- ALMAGBAT magnetic flowmeters is a standalone water meter with battery power that provides a good solution for remote locations where no power is available.
- Locations, where the piping cannot be removed or where there is no space to install a flowmeter, the SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeter are used.
Water abstraction control
In order to manage water supplies better water abstraction controls are extremely important. Normally these abstraction controls are applied to where water is being drawn for purposes such as drinking water, industrial usage or irrigation. Abstraction controls are important because restricting the amount of water that can be drawn from any one source helps prevent environmental damage, such as depletion or, harm to aquatic life as well as overall management and conservation of water sources. Therefore, it is highly necessary to measure the amount of water abstracted and to ensure that consumption remains within the prescribed limit.
Selecting the appropriate flowmeter for abstraction controls depends on a number of factors, including the desired accuracy and repeatability and also the characteristics of the installation. For example, where water is being abstracted from a river or stream, pebbles and sediment may be present which could quickly damage and even destroy a mechanical meter. Where sea water is being abstracted, the salinity of the water can also quickly wear out a stainless steel flowmeter, requiring consideration of the materials of construction. This is where the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters becomes flow meter of choice. Compared to other flowmeters the ALMAGWP magnetic flowmeters with various linings gives protection against high sediment flows, a variety of materials, including ceramic linings for particularly abrasive flows. With no moving parts, they do not suffer from problems with wear and tear, minimizing maintenance, and require no upstream strainers to filter sediment. If a portable solution is required, the portable SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC-DSPPL ultrasonic flowmeter Transit-time ultrasonic meters with its ability to measure up to 30% solids and bubbles becomes the instrument of choice.
- Water is being abstracted from a river or stream, and pebbles and sediment may be present which could quickly damage and even destroy a mechanical meter, therefore the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP magnetic flowmeters with various linings give protection against high sediment flows, a variety of materials, including ceramic linings for particularly abrasive flows.
- When a portable solution is required, the portable SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC-DSPPL ultrasonic flowmeter Transit-time ultrasonic meters with its ability to measure up to 30% solids and bubbles becomes the instrument of choice.
Water Distribution Networks
Transportation of potable water involves the uses pipes that can run through densely populated areas, cross rivers and other obstructions which will affect the rate of flow from its source to its final destination for usage. Accuracy is an important criterion in selecting a flowmeter, because it concerns the custody transfer of potable water between two independent sources. The flow measurement is subject to fiscal regulations and therefore requires a certification of accuracy. Often times at the location of installation there is no mains power available, so a battery powered, stand alone, water meter is preferred. The SmartMeasurement™ family of magnetic flowmeters high accuracies of up to 0.2%, wide turndown ratio is a popular flow meter. When a self-powered flow meter is needed, the battery powered, stand alone, ALMAGBAT offers water utilities opportunities for improving revenues because of high accuracies at high and low flow rates and because the water meter maintains its initial accuracy over a long period of time. The sensors have IP 68 mounting, allowing the meter to be temporary or continuously submerged in water. Magnetic flowmeters water meters maintain their accuracy over time and due to their robust construction the time spent on routine maintenance and service activities can be reduced to a minimum.
- ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters has high accuracies of up to 0.2%, and a wide turndown ratio is a popular flow meter.
- When a self-powered flow meter is needed, the battery-powered, stand-alone, SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGBAT offers the best alternative to a standard AC or DC-powered magnetic meter.
Since a majority of potable water processes involve liquids that are conductive, magnetic flowmeters are suitable for almost all flow measurement applications, whereas mechanical flow meters that were often used are usually oversized for the measurement. In high flow applications, mechanical meters can measure with a reasonable accuracy, but low flows at nights can be very inaccurate. The SmartMeasurement™ family of magnetic flowmeters is an ideal choice for older mechanical water meters that reaches its lifespan and are up for a replacement. A major benefit for customers is that contrary to mechanical meters, they are obstruction-free and therefore cause no pressure loss. High and low flows are measured with a high accuracy and with a high repeatability. Because there are no internal parts that can wear, the ALMAGBAT maintains its accuracy over time offering reliability and reduced maintenance. The ALMAGBAT display shows rate, total for billing purposes plus a status indication of the battery, the flow/counter direction and empty pipe detection.
- The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters high accuracies of up to 0.2%, wide turndown ratio is a popular flow meter in replacing mechanical meters because of its obstruction-free and no pressure loss features.
- When a self-powered flow meter is needed, the battery powered, stand alone, the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGBAT offers the best alternative to a standard AC or DC powered magnetic meter.
Pressure filter system in water treatment plants
- In pressure filter system, the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters are used to its ability to measure flows containing suspended particles due to its high accuracy and rugged construction.
Booster pump works with collector well in water treatment facilities
- The SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC-DSP with its four-channel configuration covers up to four applications with single electronics becomes a more economical flow meter than a single measuring fixed magnetic flowmeters in the multi pipe network water collection treatment facilities.
Corrosion protection and disinfection
- The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters with various non-corrosive liners and flow bodies are the flow meter of choice in a highly accurate chemically durable in dosing operations.
Clean water from water treatment facilities
- The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP family of magnetic flowmeters popular due to having sensors and liners that are in compliance to governmental authorities for clean drinking water coming out of water treatment facility.
Open channel measurement in partially filled wastewater and sludge purification plants
- The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGIS insertion magnetic flowmeter combined with a level transmitter are ideal for open channel liquid sludge measurement.
Open channel measurement in partially filled water distribution channels
Large water pipes or partially filled water channels are used to distribute water throughout the utility networks. These large pipes are partially full so that when storms or water surges occur, the pipes don’t break. Whereas partially filled water channels allow enough unused volume so as not to cause spillage or flooding in its surrounding. Partially filled pipes or open channels must have both velocity and level measurement as the water level or flow area increases or decreases during the year. The SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC-AVM open-channel ultrasonic flowmeter combined with a level transmitter are ideal for area velocity measurement. Systems of up to 15 meters or more have been successfully measured with the SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC-AVM ultrasonic transducers installed on the opposite side of the channel. An independent level transducer is connected to the ALSONIC-AVM flow computer and provides an accurate flow rate and total flow of any partially filled channel or pipes.
- The SmartMeasurement™ ALSONIC-AVM ultrasonic flowmeter combined with a level transmitter are ideal for open channel water measurement.
- Untreated wastewater with its high degree of solids and abrasive material becomes an excellent application for the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP families of magnetic flowmeters where it is installed in the untreated water inlet of the pre-purification system.
Measurement of iron chloride in light load aeration
In light load aeration activated sludge is separated from the wastewater. In the inlet of the secondary sedimentation, iron chloride or an equivalent substance is added for elimination the phosphates just as with the sand filter. In measuring iron chloride the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP families of magnetic flowmeters with PTFE special lining are used. The dosing of flocculating agents must always be adjusted to the amount of wastewater and the degree of turbidity. With a measuring accuracy of 0.2 % of the measuring value and a reproducibility of 0.06%, ALMAG sets the standard for other magnetic flowmeters. In addition to the PTFE special lining, high-value ceramics are also available with the ALMAGWP families of magnetic flowmeters for more abrasive fluids.
- The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP families of magnetic flowmeters with PTFE special lining are used due to the corrosive nature of phosphates and iron chloride.
- Special lining, high-value ceramics liners and/or electrodes are also available with the ALMAGWP families of magnetic flowmeters for more abrasive fluids.
Flow measurement of sludge
The sludge treatment allows biological stabilization of the sewage sludge. Effective sludge digestions are needed to y keep the resultant smells to an absolute minimum. The main sludge from the biological purification stages undergoes thickening in the so-called main sludge thickener and is temporarily stored in sludge storage containers before digestion. In both pre-thickener and in the main sludge thickener, the SmartMeasurement™ ALMAG families of magnetic flowmeters are used. Thanks to the unique diagnostics capabilities of the ALMAG installation and operating status of the device can be monitored.
- The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP families of magnetic flowmeters are in the flow meter of choice in sludge measurement.
Methanol measurement with Coriolis flowmeters
In the second stage of aeration (often time called light-duty aeration) reduced nitrogen compounds remain in the wastewater in the form of ammonia. Ammonia which is highly poisonous is converted into nitrate (nitrification) and then further converted into nitrogen. Methanol is injected during the purification process to accelerate the purification process. The mass flow of liquid methanol is critical in calculating the efficiency of ammonia purification to plant managers. The SmartMeasurement™ ALCM Coriolis mass flow meters in homogeneous mixtures are practically made for this application where it reliably determines mass flow rate, density, volume, temperature, mass or volume concentration, and percentage of solids accurately.
- The mass flow of liquid methanol is critical in calculating the efficiency of ammonia purification to plant and therefore the SmartMeasurement™ ALCM Coriolis mass flow meters in homogeneous mixtures is practically made for this application, where both mass flow, density, volume measurement is required.
In the first biological purification stage, a heavy-duty aeration system is used with air to supply oxygen to biological tanks in order to speed up the decomposition of sludge waste. Compressed air is necessary to promote optimal bacteria growth in aeration basins and the mass of dissolved oxygen is measured. One of the largest expenses incurred in operating these systems is the cost of the compressed air. Closely controlling the aeration process can reduce energy consumption by as much as 25%, and accurate measurement is critical to success in achieving this goal. Surface aerated basins uses aerobic micro-organisms to remove 80 to 90% of organic matter in waste water. Oxygen concentration in the water basins is a critical factor to promote the optimum micro-organism growth rate needed to treat the water in the shortest amount of time. As a result, large compressors are used to force air through hundreds of air diffusion filters at the bottom of the aeration basins, providing a constant 24/7 supply of oxygen to the micro-organisms in the water. This is where the SmartMeasurement™ ATMF series of thermal mass flow meters become instrument of choice. Volumetric flowmeters measure volume of air (Oxygen) which varies with changes of ambient temperature and pressure resulting in inaccurate flow measurement. The ATMF series thermal mass flow meters are not affected by changes in process conditions thereby providing a more accurate measurement for plant operators.
Carbon compounds are removed from the wastewater in various aeration basins operating in parallel. The heavy-duty aeration system often times replaces old style trickling filters in the biological purification stage. Several SmartMeasurement™ ALMAG families of magnetic flowmeters are installed to measure the return sludge in the heavy-duty aeration systems. The reliable detection and measurement of thick sludge using magnetic flowmeters are important because large proportions of solid bodies and gas bubbles frequently caused a noisy measuring signal.
- The SmartMeasurement™ ATMF series of thermal mass flow meters become instrument of choice for aeration process because volumetric flowmeters measure volume of air (Oxygen) which varies with changes of ambient temperature and pressure resulting in inaccurate flow measurement.
- The SmartMeasurement™ ALMAGWP families of magnetic flowmeters used to measure the return sludge in the heavy-duty aeration systems.
In either Aerobic digestions which uses bacterial in the presence of oxygen or anaerobic digestion which uses bacteria in absence of oxygen bacteria breaks down some of the sludge in biogas. This biogas usually contains over 50% methane and the remainder carbon dioxide. Both carbon dioxide and methane are expensive and can be sold or in the methane case used as fuel. Therefore accurate measurement of biogas is required. One problem with the biogas process involves very low flows which volumetric flowmeters cannot monitor. Moreover because biogas can be sold, accurate mass flow measurement is needed. This is where the SmartMeasurement™ series of thermal mass flow meters become instrument of choice. Not only it can measure extremely low velocities of down to 0.02mps but it measures mass flow directly without the need to monitor pressure and temperature to infer mass flow.
- The SmartMeasurement™ ATMF biogas mass flow meters are ideal in biogas applications due to its ability to measure extremely low velocities of down to 0.02mps as and unlike volumetric gas flow meters, it measures mass flow directly without the need to monitor pressure and temperature to infer mass flow as all volumetric gas flow meter.
Biogas for Cogeneration plants in wastewater facilities
Many Wastewater Treatment Facilities generate the majority of its own electric power by using internal combustion engines that burns a mixture of methane gas produced by the sewage digestion process. Producing abundant, healthy amounts of biogas each day in a digester can be the cornerstone of renewable energy program. Biogas generated during the digester system are cleaned, compressed and mixed with natural gas, this biogas becomes a valuable fuel for the plant’s co-generators, which produce enough electricity to meet over 50% of a plant’s electrical needs. Since digester gas applications operate at pressures just slightly above atmospheric and produces very low flow rates, it is essential that instrumentation has the ability to measure and remain accurate even at these low pressures.
Volumetric gas flowmeters, which are traditionally differential pressure (DP) flowmeters, requires a pressure drop to make the measurement. Low flows create a very small differential pressure across a DP device such as an orifice plate or annubar and flows cannot be monitored. This is where the SmartMeasurement™ ATMF series of thermal mass flow meters become instrument of choice. The ATMF insertion probes with its ½’ diameter sensors can measure mass flow, temperature, velocity etc. with virtually no pressure drop. Very low flow digester gas requires high accuracies of 1% and a turndown (100:1), while accurately measuring its mass without the need of pressure, temperature transmitters with a flow computer, the SmartMeasurement™ ATMF mass flow meters are a better choice than volumetric gas measurement.
- The ATMF insertion probes with its ½’ diameter sensors can measure mass flow, temperature, velocity etc. with virtually no pressure drop. Velocities of 0.02 with high turndowns of better than 100:1 are successfully measured.
Biogas from Landfills for Cogeneration
Solid wastes collected from various sources including households, commercial, and industrial activities enter a landfill, where methanogen bacteria decompose the organic material. A by-product of bacterial decomposition is biogas, composed of 50% methane and 50% carbon dioxide. Millions of tons of municipal solid wastes are disposed of in sanitary landfills where globally, landfills are the third largest anthropogenic emission source, accounting for about 13% of methane emissions or over 818 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMTCO2e). Over 1,200 landfills worldwide collect landfill gas which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and accrues emissions credits to meet the pollution regulatory reporting standards.
To collect this landfill gas, a series of pipes are embedded within the landfill and a “flare” is used to burn off the collected gas. A better use of this gas is for cogeneration where it is compressed and mixed with natural gas, which in turn can be used to run a power generator. Biogas is a clean energy source in the cogeneration process. Landfill gas is very humid, at low pressure (20-40 mBarg) and about 40-60°C (100°F). Therefore measuring the biogas as it leaves the landfill is difficult for volumetric gas flowmeters. Low pressure makes differential pressure (DP) devices like orifice plates unsuitable since they require a fairly large differential pressure to operate. Also, landfill gas is often very dirty with a high moisture and particulate content. This can clog up devices like annubar meters and orifice plates or gum up turbine meters and similar instruments that have moving parts. The SmartMeasurement™ series of thermal mass flow meters, its ability to measure low flow, offers virtually no pressure drop, and constructed with no moving parts becomes an instrument of choice.
- The SmartMeasurement™ ATMF air mass flow meters, with their no moving parts and wide turn-downs, are used for measuring biogas or landfill gas for cogeneration plants. In contrast, volumetric gas flow meters can often clog up or gum up due to high moisture and particulate content in biogas.
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